How to Treat Tuberculosis Pleural?

  • January 24, 2024
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How to Treat Tuberculosis Pleural?

What is Tuberculosis Pleural?

Tuberculosis pleural, or pleurisy, is inflammation of the pleura caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium also leads to pulmonary tuberculosis, a curable disease with early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. Historically widespread, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, advancements in antibiotics and living standards reduced TB in industrialized nations. However, it remains a top global cause of death, with 95% of cases in developing countries. Despite the decline in some areas, over 9.6 million people have active TB, emphasizing the ongoing significance. Protecting against TB is crucial, given its potential for life-threatening complications and permanent lung damage if left untreated. Global efforts for public health, healthcare access, and awareness are essential in addressing the persistent challenges posed by tuberculosis.

Why Does Tuberculosis Pleural Occur?

Tuberculosis pleural is a complication of tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs. The bacteria can spread to the pleura, leading to inflammation. The immune system's response to the infection triggers the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, causing pleural effusion. This condition can result in various symptoms, including chest pain, difficulty breathing, and persistent cough.

How is Tuberculosis Pleural Treated?

The treatment of tuberculosis pleural involves a comprehensive approach, including medical intervention and supportive care. The primary goals are to eliminate the tuberculosis infection, reduce inflammation in the pleura, and manage symptoms effectively.

  1. Diagnostic Procedures: The first step in treating tuberculosis pleural involves accurate diagnosis. This typically includes imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, as well as laboratory tests like sputum cultures and pleural fluid analysis. These diagnostic procedures help identify the presence of tuberculosis bacteria and assess the extent of pleural effusion.
  2. Antibiotic Therapy: The cornerstone of tuberculosis pleural treatment is antibiotic therapy. A combination of antimicrobial drugs, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, is prescribed for an extended period, often lasting several months. This prolonged course is necessary to eradicate the bacteria and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.
  3. Corticosteroids: In cases where there is significant inflammation and to reduce the risk of complications, corticosteroids may be prescribed. Medications like prednisone help suppress the immune response and alleviate inflammation in the pleura. However, the use of corticosteroids is carefully monitored due to potential side effects.
  4. Thoracentesis: To relieve symptoms and aid in the diagnosis, thoracentesis may be performed. This procedure involves the removal of excess fluid from the pleural space using a needle. Analyzing the fluid can provide valuable information about the underlying cause and guide further treatment.
  5. Surgical Intervention: In some cases, particularly when pleural effusion persists despite medical treatment, surgical intervention may be necessary. Procedures like pleurodesis or decortication may be performed to remove or prevent the recurrence of fluid accumulation.