Acute presentation with severe breathing difficulty almost close to choking. Associated with agitation and a sense of terror or by symptoms of chest pain, tingling or funny nerve sensations, stiffness of fingers or arms, and fainting. On examination, patients may appear anxious, breathing fast, or both; lung examination is unremarkable.
Chronic condition can present with sighing, emotional disturbances and stress.
Pulse Oximetry will show 100% saturation with normal ECG and Chest Xray. Arterial blood gases may be needed to rule out alkalosis. Pulmonary embolism if suspected should be ruled out too.
Reassurance, Supportive counseling, Yoga breathing techniques, Cognitive therapies, Stress reduction techniques, and Drugs like Alprazolam or Lithium can be tried, but in this sequence of order. Drugs to be used as a last resort.